Annotated Bibliography

Computer history Museum. (n.d.). Retrieved February 7, 2021, from

This source is part of The Computer History Museum and is more of an exhibit than a traditional article. An advantage of this source is a list of photographs from the project as well as detailed explanations as to what each are. A source like this is more accessible to those less familiar with the story and can act as a great place to start researching the topic. On top of ENIAC, this site boasts an abundance of additional information about computing before and afterwards for additional context and extended research.

Cruz, F. D. (n.d.). ENIAC programmers. Retrieved February 7, 2021, from

This source gives a general overview of ENIAC and it’s workings. One of the stand out features this source provides, is a comprehensive look into what made ENIAC different form other computing projects before it. It details how the machine used plugboard wiring and portable function tables. The site also recounts a 1938 meeting between Howard Aiken and Wallace Eckert that was instrumental in the project’s origins.

Bellis, Mary. (2020, August 27). The History of the ENIAC Computer. Retrieved from

This source goes into more detail about the specifics of ENIAC’s history. The site gives specific details about how many mathematical operations the machine could compute in a certain amount of time. A fascinating deviation of this source was how it detailed the contributions of Dr. John Von Neumann. The site also tells of Eckert and Mauchly’s later endeavors and the end of ENIAC.

O’Connor, J., & Robertson, E. (2012, July). Jean Bartik – Biography. Retrieved February 17, 2021, from

This source is about Betty Jean Jennings, who would later become known as Jean Bartik. Jennings was a leading programmer for the ENIAC project and created entirely new computing concepts in order to operate the machine. She was the earliest pioneer in using routines and nested subroutines to work out the computer’s problems. The site tells the entire story of her life as well, which helps put many aspects of the ENIAC’s story into perspective.

Boyd, B. (2018, May 15). Computers and World War 2. Retrieved February 7, 2021, from

This source is about how computers played a role in the war effort in the grander scheme of WWII. On top of ENIAC, this source contains information on other early computers such as The Mark I, The Z3, and Colossus. The added perspective of how early computers played into the war helps contextualize the situations that brought them into existence.

Thompson, C. (2019, February 13). The secret history of women in coding. Retrieved February 7, 2021, from

This source will probably end up being the most useful website source I have at my disposals because it is the longest and most professionally written. The article is about the vast yet largely unseen history of women in computing that dates all the way back to Ada Lovelace. This source is also extremely useful because it is the only one that provides direct interview with Betty Jean Jennings herself. It was an extremely fascinating and eye opening read that led me through a history I previously knew very little about.

Cassel, D. (2019, June 14). Reading the manual for ENIAC, the world’s first electronic computer. Retrieved February 7, 2021, from

This one was one of the more interesting and unique sources I found, a dissection of the operating manual for ENIAC. As well as providing a commentary on the document and several very useful video sources about the machine in general, the site provides a crucially monumental resource, the actual operating manual itself in full. That alone is an incredibly engrossing reference and could fuel my research project entirely on it’s own.

When was the first computer invented? (2020, June 30). Retrieved February 7, 2021, from

This source details the history of computers in general and describes some of the inventions that led to the creation of ENIAC. The site also provides the most in depth account of the effects ENIAC had on the computing world leading all the way up to the modern day. The timeline laid out as well as the wealth of information available make this site, a pretty valuable recource.

McCartney, S. (2001). ENIAC: The triumphs and tragedies of the world’s first computer. New York, NY: Berkley Books.

This source is a Book released in 2001 that I have started. As I haven’t gotten very far yet, I can’t speak much on the amount of information provided; but I can infer that the author, Mr. McCartney, did his research extremely thoroughly as the accounts in the novel seem very accurate and believable. Judging by my research of the book, I can also tell that it describes court battles, politics, and personal battles surrounding who got to take credit of ENIAC. This is the resource I am most enthusiastic about researching more about.

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